Author Archives: Klaava

About Klaava

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In Tokyo, book lovers can sleep in a hostel that is designed like a library

2018-02-15

Boutique hotels with design interiors and unique rooms are becoming popular, perhaps as an alternative to global hotel chains. An example is a hotel in Portugal with a vast selection of books, and now, even hostels are adopting the trend. In Tokyo, Japan, a hostel lets you sleep on a bookshelf – literally.

Book and Bed hostel in Tokyo, Japan
Book and Bed hostel in Tokyo opened in 2015. The concept is simple: a massive bookshelf accommodates both the available books and the beds where guests sleep. Sofas and coffee tables in an open space invite people who may want to socialize with fellow book readers.
hostel for book lovers in Tokyo
There are no rooms for guests, but they sleep in capsules located in the bookshelf. A bed, safe, electrical outlet and a reading lamp help travelers to rest in their wooden pods. Two sizes of capsules are available: 120cm x 200cm, and 80cm × 200cm. Claustrophobic tourists will stay away from these beds, but travelers who love books and want to stay a night in a cozy, low-priced hostel in expensive Tokyo, Book and Bed is a choice worth considering.

The concept has already been so successful that owners are opening their fifth hostel in the Shinjuku district of Tokyo in the mid-2018.
hostel where guests sleep in a bookshelf, Tokyo, Japan
The price for a night is about $50. The book selection consists of 5000 titles with a few English books as well. If you want to buy a book for a souvenir, you have to find Shibuya Publishing & Booksellers bookstore, because the hostel doesn’t sell them. The bookstore curates the book selection for Book and Bed hostels.

Free Wi-Fi, showers, bathrooms, basic toiletries, and rentable towels are available for guests as well.

All the photographs by Book and Bed. They have been taken in more than one location.

Book and Bed hostel in Tokyo, sleeping pod
Book and Bed hostel, Tokyo, sofas and coffee tables
sleeping in a capsule in a bookshelf in Tokyo hostel

Despite their strange working habits, these authors became successful

2018-02-12

Writers can have strange habits when they work. Perhaps it is because they often work alone in a room dedicated for writing, or because they really are weird. Who cares, if the results are as amazing as books by Dan Brown, Kafka, or Woolf. Here are the strangest habits (that we know about) of successful authors.
writing during night, cartoon character
I bet that the vast majority of writers are sitting by a desk, tapping a keyboard, and sipping coffee or tea. I can’t remember hearing of any odd habits from colleagues or writing groups, but of course it is possible that someone likes to write naked and another one eats carrots with his or her pet rabbit when working.

Let’s stop guessing and view an infographic produced by Custom Writing about the strangest working habits a number of famous writers have admitted they have.

strange habits of authors infographic by Custom Writing
I wonder how and why the authors have admitted their strange ways. Well, some of Franz Kafka’s stories are pretty weird, but Agatha Christie? Anyway, the authors mentioned in the infographic are:

Jane Austen, Honoré de Balzac, Dan Brown, Anthony Burgess, Truman Capote, Lewis Carroll, Agatha Christie, Arthur Conan Doyle, Alexandre Dumas, William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, Victor Hugo, James Joyce, Franz Kafka, Vladimir Nabokov, Flannery O’Connor, Edgar Allan Poe, Friedrich Schiller, Gertrude Stein, and Virginia Woolf.

My favorites from these oddities are Dan Brown who claims his cure for a lack of inspiration is to hang head down (probably a tongue-in-cheek tip). Virginia Woolf wrote 3.5 hours standing which many writers today are doing as well to avoid painful neck and back problems.

A library in Turkey established of books rescued from trash

2018-02-05

It is amazing what people throw away into trash cans, although in some countries, throwing things away only means that the owner wants to get rid of those things quickly and easily. Recycling starts from the trash can. In Ankara, Turkey, municipal garbage collectors realized that all the books thrown away could make up a library. So they created one.

Ankara, Turkey, library of books discovered from trash
The sanitation workers in the Çankaya district of Ankara started collecting books they rescued from trash bins and shared them with their colleagues. It proved to be popular, and as the collection increased, the city decided to sponsor facilities for the initiative.

A library made up of books discovered from trash was established in an empty brick factory building in September 2017. The collection quickly grew to 6000 books, and more titles are coming all the time because residents are bringing their old books into the library as well.

“Before, I wished that I had a library in my house. Now we have a library here and it’s good. I want to read all the books,” 32 year-old sanitation worker Serhat Baytemur said.
Ankara, Turkey, library of books rescued from garbage
The library has hired a full time librarian to manage the operation. As the word has spread in Ankara, schools and educational programs request books from the library as well.

Every new book is checked before it is added to the library. Books have to be clean, and all the pages in them have to be intact.

A video report by TRT World shows the library and the men behind the initiative.

Via Daily Sabah.

The travel destinations and activities that are trending in 2018 according to social media

2018-01-29

In 2017, the travel destination that continuously showed up as a trendy place to go was Portugal. It won so many travel awards that everyone is convinced it really is an exciting destination (if Portugal is a new destination for you, download a travel guide to Algarve, Portugal’s south coast here). The hot travel destinations of 2018 that are trending in social media are located in Europe, America, and in other locations around the world.

river cruise boat in Budapest, photo by Viking River Cruise
Pinterest is a popular social media service for sharing images in albums that may include memories, ideas, plans, wish lists, or product catalogues. Pinterest members save and share tagged photographs on their accounts.

If we search photos on Pinterest that have been saved with a specific tag, for instance, Iceland or Portugal, we get an indication of the destination’s attractiveness. The more photos tagged with Iceland, the more people are paying attention to Iceland. By pinning a photo, Pinterest users are thinking of that particular destination for one reason or another.

According to data listed by Coveteur, the following destinations have seen the biggest increase in photo saves on Pinterest, indicating growing interest for the places and activities.

1. River cruises.
When most tourists think about cruises, they tend to think about the Mediterranean or the Caribbean Sea, but a river cruise along the Nile in Egypt, Rhein in Germany, or perhaps a canal cruise in the Netherlands is certainly a new experience for most travelers.

2. Deserts.
A large number of people are showing interest in visiting a desert, because photo saves have considerably increased for destinations like Morocco, Dubai, Atacama Desert, and Joshua Tree in the US.
Sahara desert. Photo by James Byrum.

3. Mediterranean islands.
The famous islands in the Mediterranean Sea, like Mallorca, Crete, Malta, Sicily and Rhodos are one of the pioneers of mass tourism. Tourists have been flocking to these islands for decades, and still do. The reason is simple, they are still very nice places to spend a vacation. The trending islands in the Mediterranean are, however, the Croatian islands and Mykonos in Greece.
Mykonos island in Greece. Photo by byus.

4. Mexico City.
It is the only city destination that has seen strong growth of interest among Pinterest members.

Mexico City. Photo by Paul Sableman

Via Travel User Guide.

Take the book about movie stunts along on your mobile phone wherever you shoot action scenes

2018-01-22

The book Stunts, Scenes and Safety – Introduction to Movie Stunts was originally published for the Apple iPad only. The reason was that it was the only ebook system that allowed video clips inside a book at the time. Well, times have changed since the original edition was published, and so has the book, which is now available for smartphones, tablets and computers.

Stunts, Scenes and Safety, book content pagesBook pages on a smartphone.
The concept for the book had been brewing in H-P Virkki’s head, who is an experienced professional stuntman, for a long time. When the iPad started the tablet revolution and Apple introduced the iBooks Author multimedia ebook design software, he knew his vision could be turned into reality. And so we did.

The one thing with Apple is that no matter how great its products and tools are, everything tends to work on Apple devices alone. Since many movie fans and aspiring stuntmen kept asking for the book to be made available for smartphones, Android tablets and PCs, we created a mobile edition of the book that works on practically all mobile devices.

In addition to the iBooks edition, Stunts, Scenes and Safety is also available as an EPUB and Kindle book. It means that exactly the same content can be viewed on a smartphone, tablet or computer, only the layout is different.
Stunts, Sccenes and Safety, book layout on a tabletBook layout on a tablet.
The book is available in all major online bookstores that sell ebooks, for instance:

Amazon.com
Apple iBooks (the iBooks edition comes with embedded video clips – be patient with the download)
Barnes & Noble
Google Play Books
Kobo

If you get your book from the Amazon Kindle Store, download the Kindle reading application from the app store. If you download your book from the Apple store, make sure you have iBooks app on your mobile device. Other bookstores let you read ebooks in a variety of apps. For instance, FBReader, Aldiko, Kobo and Google Books are popular reading apps.

The author of the book, stuntman and stunt coordinator H-P Virkki, has performed in many movies and he has trained actors, athletes and stuntmen at dedicated courses, universities and theaters.

More about the book here.

Below a couple of samples from the iPad edition of the book.
stunts, scenes and safety book on ipad
stunts, scenes and safety - ipad screen shot

A hotel in central Portugal has a library of 40 000 books for its guests

2018-01-18

Portugal is a hot travel destination for many reasons, for instance, because of its south coast beaches that were chosen the best in Europe and its quirky cities, but also a hotel in central Portugal is an absolute delight for book lovers. The hotel library has a collection of 40 000 Portuguese and English titles. Most of the books are available for hotel guests to read.

Literary Man, hotel in Obidos, central Portugal
The Literary Man hotel has been built into an old house located in the ancient village of Obidos. Guest rooms in the hotel are individual and (reasonably) priced according to size and facilities. Books can be found in hotel’s public spaces in the lobby, bar and restaurant.

The hotel has also made available a few book-related activities. Book Romantics is a special dinner, Book a Story follows a story to the wine cellar for tasting, and Book Nature takes guests to a bicycle ride along landscapes of Obidos.

The Literary Man hotelli, Obidos keski-Portugali

For an accidental literary traveler, a hotel located in a small town of Obidos is sort of no man’s land. In central Portugal, somewhere between Lisbon and Porto, a traveler really must have the will and the energy to look for the hotel. The famous surfing beach in the town of Nazare is relatively close to Obidos, but that’s about it.

The public service broadcaster in Portugal, RTP, made a visit to the Literary Man hotel. The recorded video is in Portuguese, but you can see how the hotel looks like.

As you view the interior of the hotel, you may get the feeling that books have only been used to decorate public spaces. So what? Many types of artwork have been used to decorate hotels for centuries, and I haven’t seen any artist complain about it.

Via Klaava.fi.

The Library short film is for book lovers

2018-01-10

Even before the television show The Librarians, many movies and shows have used libraries as an environment for scenes in the story. Few stories, however, tell about a library or take place in a library. Jason LaMotte’s short film The Library is a tasteful story set in a beautiful English library.
The Library, short film
You can watch the 20 minute short film The Library here:

Jason LaMotte tells that all the interior scenes were shot at Bedales School Library in Petersfield, England. The library was built in 1921. Exterior scenes were shot at the Tonbridge School in Kent.

Two poems in the short film are from a play Cyrano de Bergerac by Edmond Rostrand, and from Love’s Philosophy by Percy Bysshe Shelley.

A Behind the Scenes video is also available for those who want to see hoe the short film was made. Watch The Library – Behind The Scenes video below:

Via Actualitte.

The Word of the Year doesn’t mean everlasting popularity for the expression

2018-01-08

The Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2017 is youthquake. The dictionary defines the word as ‘a significant cultural, political, or social change arising from the actions or influence of young people’. We’ll have to wait for a year or so in order to find out if this particular word of the year sticks around any longer because most of the previously chosen word of the year–expressions have quickly disappeared into thin air.

books on a library shelf, boy reading
The Word of the Year is a word or expression that Oxford Dictionary lexicographers identify as something that has attracted plenty of interest during a year. Candidate words are discussed, and the expression that is eventually chosen is judged to reflect the ethos, mood, or preoccupations of the year, and to have lasting potential as a word of cultural significance.

How often do the experts choose a word that stands the test of time? As a writer, I don’t want to use an expression that is hyped for a few months only, and quickly forgotten when the next popular word takes over. Here is the Word of the Year list from the last 10 years:

2016: Post-truth
2015: [Emoji showing a face with tears of joy]
2014: Vape
2013: Selfie
2012: Omnishambles (UK), GIF (US)
2011: Squeezed middle
2010: Big society (UK), refudiate (US)
2009: Simples (UK), unfriend (US)
2008: Credit crunch (UK), hypermiling (US)
2007: Carbon footprint (UK), Locavore (US)

Only selfie and the particular emoji image are still frequently appearing in many types of writings. The hit rate of the Oxford Dictionary experts could be better, but seeing the future – even when only one word is considered – is not easy.

Perhaps the Word of the Year-committee has better words on its final list, but fails to identify the right one? The shortlist for the Word of the Year 2017 was:

Antifa
Broflake
Gorpcore
Kompromat
Milkshake Duck
Newsjacking
Unicorn
White fragility

YotaPhone 3 smartphone comes both with a color and a black-and-white screen, but why?

2017-12-27

The YotaPhone 3 smartphone that features a 5.5-inch color screen and a 5.2-inch E ink grayscale screen is not the first dual-display phone, but it is the latest, and comes with all the features a typical smartphone user wants. There are two reasons for having a display on both sides of the phone: the E ink screen is ideal for reading, for instance, ebooks or any long texts because it doesn’t flicker, and the E ink screen is very battery friendly.
YotaPhone 3 with two screens: color and e ink
If you like to read, but don’t want to carry another device, like an e-reader with you, a dual screen phone can solve that problem. Especially people who read a lot from a screen benefit from the static E ink display that doesn’t flicker.

An E ink screen doesn’t emit light, so you need an external light source for reading. The good side is that these black-and-white screens consume very little energy, saving battery power.

The YotaPhone 3 smartphone is powered by Android 7.0 software. It comes with an additional application that is used to control what the black-and-white screen displays.

Take a look at a video below where the features and two screens of the YotaPhone 3 are shown from many angles:

The YotaPhone 3 is available at least at this store for GBP548.

Yotaphone 3 key features and specifications

Color display 5.5 Inches, AMOLED (Multitouch).
Screen Resolution FHD 1080 x 1920 Pixel
Gorilla Glas Gorilla Glass 4
Greyscale display (E ink) 5.2 inches.
4G and 3G connectivity: Networks GSM 850/900/1800/1900MHz (B5/B8/B3/B2), 3G/WCDMA 850/900/1900/2100MHz (B1/B2/B5/B8), FDD-LTE 1800MHz (B3), TD-LTE 1900/2300/2500/2600MHz
Dual SIM (Dual Standby).
Operating System Android 7.0
Original (ENG/CHN) software from factory comes WITHOUT Google Play Store
Languages English, 中文 (Chinese), Chinese
Processor 64bit Qualcomm Snapdragon, Octa-core
RAM 4 GB
Internal storage space 64 GB.
Camera 12 and Front Camera 13 megapixels
Bluetooth
Wi-Fi 802.11 A/B/G/N/AC 2.4GHz/5GHz
GPS GPS/A-GPS/Glonass
Micro SD memory card slot
USB port (Type-C USB)
Headphone jack (3.5mm)
Shell material Glass and Metal
Size 153.6 x 75.2 x 7.9mm
Weight 172 g
Battery 3,300 mAh
In the Box 1x Smartphone (built-in battery), 1x Quick Start Guide, 1x Data Cable, 1x Charger, 1x Protection Case

Via The Digital Reader.

Mobile device provides instant internet access in more than 100 countries without roaming charges

2017-12-20

Writers, photographers, digital nomads, and all professionals who frequently travel always have the same problem when they arrive in a new country: how to instantly get access to the internet at a reasonable cost. Here is our guide for using pre-paid SIM cards overseas. Now, easier solutions are being developed, like the Nommi, a personal Wi-Fi/4G router that provides mobile internet access in more than 100 countries at an affordable cost.

an office for a digital nomad in Bordeaux, France
A Wi-Fi/4G router, such as Nommi, is a smart little device for mobile internet access. The router has a SIM card with a data plan for connecting to a local 3G or 4G mobile network. The router shares the local mobile internet connection to your other devices via Wi-Fi. Your laptop, tablet and smartphone can connect to the router (that has become your personal hotspot) via Wi-Fi and access the internet exactly the same way as you would be using your Wi-Fi at home.

Nommi 4G/wi-fi router and smartphone
Nommi is not yet (in 2017) a commercial product but the technology and the concept works. The developers are welcoming investors at Indiegogo. The product is scheduled to ship in June 2018.

The product consists of a small and slim piece of hardware that takes care of routing the data traffic between Wi-Fi and mobile networks, and a mobile application that is used to manage data plans and purchases of additional data packages.

The pre-order price for the product is $60, and the expected retail price is $120 once the product ships. In addition to the hardware, you need to purchase a data package. Nommi has two options: a monthly package that works in all 100 countries for $35 a month. It includes 5GB of data. Additional data can be purchased directly from the Nommi application. The other option is to buy daily packages for $4 when needed. The daily package comes with 500MB of data.

The third option for a data plan is to insert your own SIM card into the Nommi device and use it for internet access – maybe you have discovered a really cheap prepaid data plan and want to use that. Travelers in the European Union countries, take note: EU member countries are not allowed to charge for roaming from one another. If you have a SIM card purchased in an EU country and travel to another EU country, there are no roaming charges. You only pay the costs of the original data plan.

The countries covered by the Nommi’s built-in SIM card are listed in this document.

Nommi mobile internet access  for travelers
Three features make Nommi an attractive Wi-Fi/4G router: instant internet access in any of the covered countries, an easy way to purchase data plans, and reasonable pricing. The built-in SIM card manages the connection to a local network, lets you access the internet, and if you need more data, the purchase of additional data packages is integrated to the Nommi application. A video clip below shows how to buy an additional data package.

The first thing I do when I arrive in a new country is that I search for a store that sells SIM cards. Once I have discovered one or two, I buy a local pre-paid SIM card for internet access. In some countries the process can be troublesome, but usually it is quite straightforward. Nonetheless, I have to find a shop that sells pre-paid data plans, personnel who can understand what I need (potential language problems), and pay for it. Sometimes, there is a configuration process as well, but it is rare nowadays. A small box that removes all that from my travel itinerary is a welcomed product.

The Nommi has more features, such as a VPN (Virtual Private Network, which is a security and privacy feature), it can be used as a power bank for a smartphone or tablet, and it can also boost a Wi-Fi signal of another hotspot.

Two models are being developed:

Nommi Slim
– 3G and 4G mobile network connectivity.
– Wi-Fi
– Built-in SIM.
– Standard SIM card slot.
– Micro USB port.
– 114 x 82 x 17 mm
– Battery life 16 hours.

Nommi Power
– 3G and 4G mobile network connectivity.
– Wi-Fi
– Built-in SIM.
– Standard SIM card slot.
– Micro USB port.
– USB out port.
– 124 x 82 x 21 mm.
– Battery life 48 hours, or 24 hours if an iPhone recharged twice.

Via Travel User Guide.

The best Android tablets 2017 under 500 for reading and for other tasks

2017-12-18

Tablets are versatile multipurpose computers that are used for many tasks, including reading, writing, watching videos, playing games, social media, listening to music and audiobooks. If you are primarily interested in tablets because you want to read ebooks, we have a few tips for choosing between an ereader and a tablet. If you are intend to read and do other tasks on a tablet, read on, because here are the best tablets that were priced under 500 dollars/euros in 2017.
Asus Zenpad 3S 10
Techradar reviewed tens of tablets during 2017, and based on those reports, the best tablets were chosen. The round-up features tablets that are running on Android software only, not Apple iPad models.

The common sizes for tablets are 7, 8 and 10 inches. We believe that the smallest category, 7-inch tablets, will have problems in competition against large smartphones. The following list of best tablets identifies only one 7-inch model, the Amazon Fire, which is priced so low that it can compete against any product. Low price has also made it suitable for children.

For adults, who read and do other tasks on a tablet, 10 inches is a good size. Web pages and books are easy to read (even PDF-documents), videos look fabulous on a good screen, and even occasional writing on a tablet is possible with a wireless Bluetooth keyboard.
Huawei Mediapad M3 8
Here are the best tablets 2017 by Techradar.

1. Samsung Galaxy Tab S3
Screen size: 9.7 inches, resolution: 2048 x 1536, price just under 500 euros/dollars.
Sharp screen, included stylus for handwriting and drawing on the screen, and an optional keyboard/case.

2. Asus ZenPad 3S 10
Screen size: 9.7 inches, resolution: 2048 x 1536, price level around 300 dollars/euros.
Gorgeous screen, fast performance, some issues with quality.

3. Google Pixel C
Screen size: 10.2 inches, resolution: 2560 x 1800, price level 300 dollars/euros.
Excellent screen, and very favorably reviewed tablet, but not for those who only want the latest.

4. Samsung Galaxy Tab S2
Screen size: 9.7 inches, resolution: 2048 x 1536, price level 400.
Thin and light, bright and high-resolution AMOLED screen.

5. Huawei MediaPad M3 8.0
Screen size: 8.4 inches, resolution: 2560 x 1600, price level 220 dollars/euros.
A slightly more compact tablet in 8.4 inches size with a high-resolution display and aluminum shell.

6. Lenovo Tab 4 10 Plus
Screen size: 10.1 inches, resolution: 1920 x 1200, price level 250.
A tablet designed for all-round use at home with nice screen and competitive price point.

7. Amazon Fire HD 8 (2017)
Screen size: 8 inches, resolution: 1280 x 800, price just under 100 dollars, but Amazon occasionally runs campaigns with heavily discounted price.
A branded eight-inch tablet with necessary features and specifications under 100 dollars is a good deal. The only thing is that the tablet relies on Amazon services, and you can’t install Android apps from the Google Play Store, but from the limited selection of Amazon app store.

8. Amazon Fire HD 10
Screen size: 10.1-inch, resolution: 1280 x 800, price level 150-190 dollars.
A branded 10-inch tablet from a trusted vendor for 150 dollars is a good deal, although the screen resolution doesn’t quite match today’s standards. Buyers should be aware of the reliance on Amazon services.

9. Amazon Fire 7 (2017)
Screen size: 7-inch, resolution: 1024 x 600, price level 50 dollars.
You can’t expect too much from a 50-dollar tablet, but Amazon delivers a working product that is fine, for instance, for children.

Lenovo 4 10 Plus with fingerprint login

Which tablet is the best for reading ebooks?

Specifications don’t tell everything, so having an opportunity to feel the weight and the size of a tablet in hand, and view its screen can make a difference. Both the Asus ZenPad 3S 10 and the Lenovo Tab 4 10 Plus come with beautiful (9.7 and 10.1-inch) screens and are priced competitively. If a smaller tablet feels better in hand, the 8.4-inch Huawei is a solid choice.

For those, who are already deeply tied into the Amazon Kindle ebook system or to another Amazon digital content service, the Fire tablet can be the right one – if they are comfortable with the limitations, like the smaller number of apps available than for normal Android tablets.

Why a nonfiction book publisher won’t accept a fiction manuscript or comics publisher rejects a textbook?

2017-12-11

The variety of book proposals publishers receive is great: some proposals have been drafted so well that the author either has long experience or has attended a course where it was discussed, whereas others simply ask their memoirs to be published. Perhaps the most puzzling proposals are novel manuscripts in the spirit of Fifty Shades of Grey submitted to a nonfiction publisher, or an astrophysics book proposal submitted to a poetry publisher. Let’s see why this kind of random submission method is a total waste of time for everyone involved.
office desk, employee sorting inbox and outbox
It is so easy to submit a book proposal to a publisher (or agent in some markets) that even if the author has read the guidelines on the publisher’s web page, the author may think “You never know – maybe they still like my book”.

No, that’s not the case. The submission doesn’t even get a chance. A book proposal or manuscript that doesn’t fit into any genre specified in the guidelines will be swiftly moved into the receiver’s computer trashcan. The message and its attachments won’t even be read.

The reason is simple: publishers specialize in a specific genre in order to master the content and the business related to that genre. Small and independent publishers do it to focus their limited resources on a type of content and business ecosystem they believe they know the best. Big publishers who accept books of any genre operate the same way behind the scenes. They have separate publishing divisions for fiction, nonfiction, textbooks, and for all other categories they have decided to pursue business.

Let’s think of music: say, a conductor of a philharmonic orchestra wants to record Beethoven’s Violin Concerto with a new star violinist. The conductor doesn’t contact a punk rock or blues label, but a publisher that is specialized in classical music. The classical label knows the costs of a live recording, professionals required for post-production, and has the means to market the album to maximize sales.

Exactly the same applies to book publishing.

When an author submits his or her precious manuscript or book proposal to a publisher who has published, and wants to publish, books in the genre the author is targeting, the book proposal gets an opportunity. It will be opened, read and reviewed. Perhaps several individuals examine the submission, and discuss its merits and shortcomings. Above all, the proposal gets its moment of opportunity.

What if the author can’t specify a genre, and that’s the reason for submitting the proposal to many types of publishers? If the proposal is absolutely clear what the book is about, the genre can be specified. If not, more work on the proposal is required.